National Security Policy


COPAIR provides comprehensive research/analysis and policy recommendations to the decision makers of Pakistan for protecting the national interest of the country and up keeping its sovereignty. The Center works on the principles of inclusivity and integration of all stakeholders and act as a platform for dialogue to enhance deterrence and security apparatus of Pakistan. 

Our vision is to play a role in creating a safe environment where life, property, civil liberties and socioeconomic rights of the citizens are protected and the people of Pakistan are able to live and prosper in harmony, freedom, respect and dignity as enshrined in the Constitution of Pakistan.

In the field of National Security Policy, COPAIR focuses on military and non-military security:


Future of warfare is determined by advancement in technology and its application in military affairs; however, this cyclical process results in proliferation of new military strategies, doctrines and technologies. Technologically advanced civilizations possessing unconventional weaponry generally become a threat to those who does not possess such capabilities leading to a disequilibrium in balance of power between actors. 

Centre of Pakistan and International Relations (COPAIR) assist the policymakers in modernizing the national military edifice according to the challenges of 21st century which are; higher costs, constantly changing technology and its application in military strategies, transformation of military institutions and its affairs, in order to be aligned with the new specialized domains such as cyber security and external space race. With the progress in computing and internet, these susceptibilities are amplifying and founding new grounds of future warfare.

Big-Data Analytics is the centre of attention of COPAIR as “data” is becoming a cognitive weapon for psychological warfare and subversion and emerging as an expensive and abundant commodity.  

Innovations in Robotics and Artificial intelligence are eradicating the conventional designs of war and national security, which is why the subject is also core of studies and researches of COPAIR.

2. Economic Security

Economic security, in the context national policy formulation, is the ability of a nation-state to follow its choice of policies to develop the national economy in the manner desired. Historically, conquest of nations have made conquerors rich through plunder, access to new resources and enlarged trade through controlling of the conquered nations’ economy. In today’s complex system of international trade, characterised by multi-national agreements, mutual inter-dependence and availability of natural resources etc., economic security today forms, arguably, as important a part of national security as military policy.

Center of Pakistan and International Relations (COPAIR) provides recommendations to the policymakers on economic security of Pakistan through identification of threats to the country’s overall economic security. The idea of economic espionage also lies in the core of National Security Policymaking process, and our institute suggest the measures, which the government of Pakistan and National Security actors can take to avoid the foreign meddling in country’s economic affairs, and establish a network of economic intelligence for collective economic advantage.

3. Energy Security

Energy security, as a subject pertinent to the national security, is also the focus of COPAIR research where we examine the association between national security and the availability of natural resources for energy consumption. How Pakistan can ameliorate its energy shortfalls and access to cheap energy, how the uneven distribution of energy supplies among countries has led to significant vulnerabilities and what role country can play to secure its energy supplies. Among these questions, the focus of COPAIR is to provide policy recommendations and advocate policies of national interest, leading to energy security and overcoming country’s energy deficit.

Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) being the pivot of COPAIR activities also have an equal footing in the field of energy where our institute strongly adhere to the adoption of renewable energy and reducing our dependence on the fossil fuel, whereas, at the same time we will be achieving the vision of Green Pakistan -policy of PM Imran Khan. 

The research and publications of COPAIR, related to the Energy Security tend to focus on the threats, recommendations and short/long term security measures, which should be taken by the national policy makers of the country.

4. Environmental Security

Environmental security have farfetched implications on an individual, national and international security, and have repercussions for the national economy, livelihood, tourism, and health etc. Center of Pakistan and International Relations (COPAIR) not only serves a national cause by working on the Environmental Security but it also fulfils the Goal 13 of SDGs calling for Climate Action. 

Even though environmental degradation and climate change sometimes cause violent conflict within and between countries and other times not, it can weaken the national security of the state in number of profound ways. Environmental change can undermine the economic prosperity which plays big role in country’s military capacity and material power. Climate change also could, through extreme weather events, have a more direct impact on national security by damaging critical infrastructures such as military bases, naval yards and training grounds, thereby severely threatening essential national defense resources.

COPAIR aims to produce research publications and organize activities like community awareness campaigns and seminars to gather support for the green policy making at national level and to inform the public at grassroots.

5. Protecting the Human Rights

Center of Pakistan and International Relations (COPAIR) is a staunch advocate of the principle of human rights and advocates policies safeguarding the civil liberties and entitlements granted by basic human rights. Our focus in the policy formulation of Human Rights is to provide recommendations and strategies related to legal reforms, improvement of forensic sciences, and upgradation of physical facilities to inspect the transgressions of human rights on scientific grounds. 

COPAIR works on the blueprint provided by the Ministry of Human Rights of Pakistan and its plan of action putting four key areas on priority list:

  1. Protection of Women Rights
  2. Protection of Child Rights
  3. Protection of Rights of Minorities 
  4. Protection of the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (PWDs)

The Center of Pakistan and International Relations (COPAIR) have taken a number of initiatives for the protection and promotion of the rights of vulnerable segment of society such as right to life, free and equal opportunities for all in education and provision of food and clean water, right to vote and freedom of speech etc. 

We work on capacity building initiatives and mass media awareness-raising and advocacy campaigns to bring attitudinal change in the society for protection of the rights of vulnerable segments with special emphasis to rights of every citizen of the country.

6. Diplomatic Maneuvering

COPAIR is engaged in the informal diplomacy activities as we organize and participate in semi-official track 1.5 or more autonomous track 2 processes. COPAIR is more or less part of the foreign policy apparatus of Pakistan as we furnish recommendations and policy papers ranging from determining the vitality of formal diplomatic maneuvers, signaling future policy shifts and exploring relevant shifts on the other side. More generally, COPAIR is also engaged in informal diplomacy and we aims to help in establishing people-based pipelines, which are important when formal diplomatic relations impend on a bilateral level.

7. Power Projection

COPAIR researches and policy dialogues also consider Pakistan’s Power Projection strategy as central to the National Security Policy formulation and act as an enabler in this context. The Center acts as the carrier of national soft power and furnish researches related to the international competition and Pakistan’s role in this contest.

National Security through Technology

Technology is a basic driver of social progress, opening up new avenues to create, preserve and spread knowledge. It is particularly noticeable in the domain of military intelligence and national security through a recurring pattern of revolutions in military and intelligence affairs aligned with unprecedented developments in science and technology. Currently, those emerging technologies include AI, robotics, quantum computing, 5G connectivity etc. that epitomize an advantage for the defence forces but a challenge to national security. Technologies such as robotics, artificial intelligence and even autonomous vehicles also have the added benefit for policymakers to deliver services and support to their people in ways that will not only take as much time, money and human resources as it takes today. Imagine logging on to a government website and getting “recognized” via facial recognition, and content had been shown to the user in his mother tongue which is an information government already have. Similarly, image a self-driving vehicle sniffing out the mines in the battlefield and providing reinforcement needed the warfront, without human intervention. These technologies are not fiction as they are in their development phase and leading to a spiraling artificial intelligence led arms race and robotic armies guarding the frontiers and making offensive actions against adversaries. 

The scope of these nascent technologies is dual-edged as some of them are currently more bleeding-edge than leading-edge while others are rendering their services in various fields. Either these technologies are already employed in different domains of national security while others have prospected use such as AI and robotics in border security, Cyber security, Biosecurity, domestic crime prevention, Air and Naval warning systems, Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems, and application in myriad war platforms, weapon and surveillance systems.